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3D Xəritə ilə Özünüzü Coğrafiya Ustadı Edin

The study published in the iScience by Cell Press Journal was the project of an interdisciplinary team of researchers from UCF, the Thomas Jefferson University and their industry partners Strateos and MBF Bioscience.

3d xəritə

Principal investigator of the UCF team, neuro-cardiovascular scientist Dr. Zixi Jack Cheng, said the project mapped thousands of neurons in clusters around the heart that help to control heartbeat and blood circulation.

Over a two-year period, the collaborators created a comprehensive map of the cardiac nervous system at the cellular level, mapping specific neuron clusters called ganglia. The researchers say this blueprint will allow scientists and physicians to more precisely study the neuroanatomy of the heart.

The project was funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under the Stimulating Peripheral Activity to Relieve Conditions (SPARC) program and drew on technologies and expertise from multiple research groups. SPARC supports research into understanding nerve-to-organ interactions with the aim of developing bioelectronic treatments for diseases and conditions.

Analysts estimate that approximately every 40 seconds an American will have a heart attack. Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the U.S. and globally, accounting for approximately 18 million deaths worldwide in 2017.

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Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas.

The First Responder UAS Three-Dimensional (3D) Mapping Challenge, or UAS 5.0, will ask competitors to develop an affordable UAS solution which will provide public safety with accurate positioning and high-quality 3D digital mapping in real-time. The 3D mapping capability will support first responders in indoor missions where a natural disaster has created a constrained environment due to a partially collapsed structure with smoke and limited light. The competition will accept entries beginning April 18, 2023, with multiple stages running through September 2024.

The First Responder UAS 3D Mapping Challenge encourages all drone enthusiasts to bring their ideas to this competition. To learn about eligibility requirements, visit, and to learn more about the challenge and register, visit

Chromatin fibers package long strands of DNA, which are spooled around histone proteins and then repeatedly looped to form highly compact structures. All those loops create multiple contact points where genetic sequences that code for proteins interact with gene regulatory sequences, such as super enhancers, promoters, and transcription factors.

Using deep Hi-C sequencing, a tool used for studying 3D genome organization, the researchers created a high-resolution map that included 704 million contact points within retinal cell chromatin. Maps were constructed using post-mortem retinal samples from four human donors.

The researchers then integrated that chromatin topology map with datasets on retinal genes and regulatory elements. What emerged was a dynamic picture of interactions within chromatin over time, including gene activity hot spots and areas with varying degrees of insulation from other regions of DNA.

Furthermore, similarities between mice and human chromatin organization suggest conservation across species, underscoring the relevance of chromatin organizational patterns for retinal gene regulation. More than a third (35.7%) of gene pairs interacting through a chromatin loop in mice also did so in human retina.

The researchers integrated the chromatin topology map with data on genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies for their involvement in AMD and glaucoma, two leading causes of vision loss and blindness. The findings point to specific candidate causal genes involved in those diseases.

The integrated genome regulatory map will also assist in evaluating genes associated with other common retina-associated diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, determining missing heritability and understanding genotype-phenotype correlations in inherited retinal and macular diseases.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit

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(A) relative location of the islet cluster on B2(P14) slide (neck of the pancreas). The panel also shows the relative location of the neck of the pancreas and the heat map derived from it, which further indicates the surface area occupied by islets. (B) islet cluster boundaries (black dotted line) on B2(P14) slide (field of view 4x), (C) window in to the lower part of the islet cluster (red dotted line), (D) close view of the islets inside the cluster (field of view 20x), (E) lymphoid organized tissue inside the peripancreatic adipose tissue, taken from the head slice of the pancreas (field of view 10x). The reddish stain on the left represents a processing error. (F) inflammatory process captured on a blood vessel taken from the peripancreatic adipose tissue of the tail slice of the pancreas (field of view 20x). The blood vessel is filled with red blood cells and inflammatory cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils).

A continuation of these studies is an impetuous for the entire structure of the human pancreas. In the near future we wish to continue this approach by initiating a new study which takes into consideration the relationship of the islets with the blood vessels and ducts. Overall, this study begins to address a significant gap in our anatomical understanding of human islets in relation to the pancreas as a whole. Prior histological studies of the human pancreas have taken into consideration mainly small tissue regions. Most often these regions were rarely specified and if specified then no exact location was provided.

While to our knowledge no previous study has investigated the distribution of islets within the human pancreas, some studies have been conducted on the mouse pancreas42,43,44. Furthermore, additional research would be practical for a better assessment of the islet clusters with regard to the distribution of individual islet sizes and the composition of endocrine cell types. In light of the above observations additional questions of interest also include: 1) given that these islet clusters may receive a greater blood supply than smaller, more isolated islets, do they have a high/low proportion of beta cells than predicted ? 2) Although we captured some local inflammatory processes in the peri-pancreatic adipose tissue, how these inflammatory processes are distributed along the organ remains to be determined. For instance, are these inflammatory processes confined to the tail region, or do they occur/extend in the head and neck as well ? With regard to the islet clusters one of the methods that appears to be suitable for such an experimental estimate would be the near infrared optical projection tomography for assessments of β-cell mass distribution44. Nevertheless, in this study our main observation revealed that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. If these particular observations can be extrapolated as a general rule in our species, it remains to be thoroughly evaluated in the future.

The examination of the sections was made with an Olympus BX 41 microscope coupled to an Olympus DP25 video camera. The area and perimeter of the pancreatic islets have been measured by using the Olympus Cell^B analysis system.


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